is jute a fibre crop

ID: 2BJ0TYN (RF) Harvesting,jute plants,over,second crop,paddy plantation,just finished,Bishnupur,vast green,cultivation fields,Nadia,West Bengal,India. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. An olitorius jute crop producing 3 t ha-1 of dry fibre absorbs 111 kg N, 64 kg P 2 O 5. Jute plants clean the air by consuming large quantities of CO2, which is the main cause of the greenhouse effect. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was also used in the military. The fibres are held together by gummy materials; these must be softened, dissolved, and washed away to allow extraction of the fibres from the stem, a process accomplished by steeping the stems in water, or retting. Diversified byproducts from jute can be used in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products. The fibre is extracted from jute plant after natural processing (fibre extraction). d. For fibre purpose – jute is harvest before flowering . The largest importers of raw jute fibre are Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and France. Jute is a rainfed crop which is cultivated mainly in Bangladesh, India and Thailand which account for more than 90 percent of world production. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established. Cotton provides the basic raw material to cotton textile industry. Jute is a renewable resource with a high production per hectare. Amongst the Yoruba of Nigeria, the leaves are called Ewedu, and in the Hausa-speaking northern Nigeria, the leaves are called turgunuwa or lallo. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The jute textile industry, Bengal’s counterpart to Bombay’s cotton industry, developed in the wake of the Crimean War (1853–56), which, by cutting off Russia’s supply of raw hemp to the jute mills of Scotland, stimulated the export of raw jute from Calcutta to Dundee. Jute is a long, Shiny plant base fibre that can be spun into coarse as well as strong threads. Jute is used in a wide variety of goods. The jute plant’s fibres lie beneath the bark and surround the woody central part of the stem. No. It is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability. Jute is in great demand because of the cheapness, softness, strength, length, lustre and uniformity of its fibre. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These plants are native to the Indian subcontinent and are grown throughout the year. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. There are two kinds of jute that are produced today: White jute and brown jute, which is stronger, softer, and silkier. Bangladesh Bank monogram, with three connected jute leaves at the base. As political tension rose between India and Paksitan, the latter felt the need to setup their own jute industry. "A Novel Process of Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Reactive Dye". Jute is also a totem for Ayivu, one of the Lugbara clans. Jute plants clean the air by consuming large quantities of CO2, which is the main cause of the greenhouse effect. Jute is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics, such as Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), and canvas. China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. [1] "Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Moreover, non-host crops like rice, wheat, mustard etc. Jute … Another diversified jute product is geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. Jute’s single largest use, however, is in sacks and bags, those of finer quality being called burlap, or hessian. Jute is an amazing fibre – it’s incredibly sustainable, it’s affordable, it’s fast-drying and it’s breathable. The bast fibre is obtained from C. capsularis, a species with round pods which is grown in lowland areas subject to inundation. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. The crop is mainly grown in West Bengal, Assam, Northern Bihar, south-eastern Orissa, Tripura and eastern Uttar Pradesh. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet) is offered by the monsoon climate, during the monsoon season. Doraiswamy, I., A. Basu, and K. P. Chellamani. The fibers are first extracted by retting. Crop rotation : Jute cultivation in the same field year after year should not be allowed. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential. Jute mats and rugs are made both by powerloom and handloom in large volume in Kerala, India. "Properties of Jute Based Ternary Blended Bulked Yarns". It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae. Why Jute. Read More. "Comparative Studies on Bleaching and Dyeing of Jute after Processing with Mineral Oil in Water Emulsion vis-a-vis Self-Emulsifiable Castor Oil". Wa-terlogging in general increases disease intensity. They are kept submerged for 10–30 days, during which time bacterial action breaks down the gummy tissues surrounding the fibres. In contrast to most textile fibres which consist mainly of cellulose, jute fibres are part cellulose, part lignin. Jute Fibre. capsularis, or white jute, and C. olitorius, including both tossa and daisee varieties—belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), and their fibre. The Plant Jute is extracted from the bark of the white jute plant (Cor chorus capsular is) and to a lesser extent from tossa jute (C. olitorius). Jute is one of the most important cash crops of eastern India. It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called the Golden Fibre. [4], In classical antiquity, Pliny recorded that jute plants were used as food in Ancient Egypt. Corchous olitorius leaves are used to make mulukhiya, sometimes considered the Egyptian national dish, but consumed in Cyprus and other Middle Eastern countries as well. F) Jute Fibre Extraction On average, jute yields four times more fibre per acre than flax. Cotton and jute are the two most important fibre crops of India. The future of jute as a golden fibre and cash crop is obviously bright and the general masses must take more active interest to promote such a harmless and environmentally friendly crop. Jute has a low water footprint because it is mostly rain fed. The carbon footprint is low; Jute is a fast growing field crop with high carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rate. Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is a variety thought native to South Asia. Jute is one of the important natural fibers after cotton in terms of cultivation and usage. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres used for packaging, textiles, and agricultural sectors. Raw jute was originally considered as a … The fibre was used primarily for cordage manufacture until 1822, when commercial yarn manufacture began at Dundee, Scot., which soon became a centre for the industry. Jute is a golden fibre as well as a major cash crop of Bangladesh. History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. #Jute is an incredible fibre: #sustainable, affordable, fast … The traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home décor. [15], Jute is in great demand due to its cheapness, softness, length, lustre and uniformity of its fiber. (a) Rubber (b) Jute (c) Tomato (d) Coffee (b) Jute 23. The main cotton producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. the three most notable examples include: Cotton Cotton is the most popular and widely used fibre crop. The jute fibres are mainly concentrated near the woody, central parts of the stalk. The Textile Institute. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Jute, as a natural fibre, has many inherent advantages like lustier, high tensile strength, low extensibility, moderate heat and fire resistance and long staple lengths. Along with white jute, tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. About Jute. It has a great demand because of the cheapness, softness, strength, length, lustre and uniformity of its fibre. Day. While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses,[citation needed] some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. It is highly functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products. Coir, pineapple leaf fibre, banana stem fibre, and kapok fibre are used for different purposes. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. Moses, J. Jeyakodi, and M. Ramasamy. The two species grown for jute fibre are similar and differ only in the shape of their seed pods, growth habit, and fibre characteristics. China also has a dominating place in jute cultivation. Bulking of, Advantages of jute include good insulating and, Jute can be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic. The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. It is one of the most versatile natural fibers that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. But it Omissions? Primary CBC provides a tufting surface, while secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. Let’s take a closer look at exactly how this fibre is cultivated, the type of fabrics it makes and just why it’s so eco-friendly. About Jute. No. Jute is a parenchymatus fibre. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute produces top quality yarn, fabric, and sacks. Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Let’s take a closer look at exactly how this fibre is cultivated, the type of fabrics it makes and just why it’s so eco-friendly. Jute fibre has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability compared to synthetics. Cotton provides the basic raw material to cotton textile industry. The model covers 27 countries and regions and consists of estimated behavioural equations for the area and yield per ha of jute, as well as for demand, exports and imports of jute fibre and jute products. The crop is mainly grown in West Bengal, Assam, Northern Bihar, south-eastern Orissa, Tripura and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Cellulose is a major component of plant fibres while lignin is a major component of wood fibre; jute is therefore partly a textile fibre and partly wood. Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. Nearly 40 lakh farmers are involved in jute cultivation in the state. Burlap bags are used to ship and store grain, fruits and vegetables, flour, sugar, animal feeds, and other agricultural commodities. The jute industry is reeling under the crisis caused by the shutdown of Jute mills. Jute Cultivation in India: Conditions, Method, Production and Distribution! CBC made of jute comes in two types. To protect the Jute industry, parliament enacted the Jute Packaging Mandatory Act, 1987. Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibres from wit… It is also called the "golden fiber" due to its versatile nature.[10]. It is called the 'brown paper bag' as it is also the most used product in gunny sacks to store rice, wheat, grains, etc. Fertiliser Schedule : Response of jute to nitrogen is universal and improved varieties of olitorius are more responsive to nitrogen than capsularis. The future of jute as a golden fibre and cash crop is obviously bright and the general masses must take more active interest to promote such a harmless and environmentally friendly crop. The fibre strands nearest the bark generally run the full length of the stem. Jute is predominantly a rainfed annual crop. The draft genome of jute (Corchorus olitorius) was completed.[14]. In trade and industry, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute as their uses are almost same. 199 kg K 2 O, 175 kg CaO and 42 kg Mg ha-1. For other uses, see, The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary, Sivan and Levenston, Bantam books, NY, 1875, (Query page requires interactive entry in four sections: "Countries"–Select All; "Elements"–Production Quantity; "Items"–Jute; "Years"–2014), Learn how and when to remove this template message, "New evidence for jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) in the Indus civilization", "Welcome to the world of Jute and Kenaf - IJSG", "Office of the Jute Commissioner — Ministry of Textiles", "Statistics — World production of Jute Fibres from 2004/2005 to 2010/2011", "Trend analysis of area, production and productivity of jute in India", "Statistics — World Import of raw Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres", "Statistics — World Imports of Products of Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres", "Information on Jute, Kenaf, Roselle Hemp, & Natural/Bast Fiber Textile Products - by GFTCL", Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jute&oldid=991487440, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles needing additional references from January 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It falls into the bast fiber category (fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin") along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. Jute requires 5–8 cm (2–3 in) of rainfall weekly, and more during the sowing time. It is a rain-fed crop which is cultivated without the need of any chemical fertilizer or pesticides. The cook cuts jute leaves into shreds and adds them to the soup, which normally also contains ingredients such as meat or fish, pepper, onions, and spices. Jute was used in traditional textile machinery as fibers having cellulose (vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber content). Above the water lily are four stars and three connected jute leaves. Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature. Also, fabrics made of jute fibers are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. A jute crop is usually harvested when the flowers have been shed but before the plants’ seedpods are fully mature. Fibre from C. olitorius, an upland species with long pods, is but little inferior. Jute mats and prayer rugs are common in the East, as are jute-backed carpets worldwide. jute. It is an ingredient for stews, typically cooked with lamb or chicken. Tomlinson, Jim. It helps to make top quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. Jute is a parenchymatus fibre. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world, mainly in Bangladesh. Wa-terlogging in general increases disease intensity. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 09:16. must be brought in the cropping sequence to follow jute. Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature. It is grown for both fiber and culinary purposes. Jute can be successfully grown in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Chengleput and parts of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Pudukkottai and Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi districts where assured supply of irrigation water is available for its cultivation and retting for fibre extraction. Jute plays a very important role in the socio-economic activities of the Bangladesh. India’s own jute-processing industry began in 1855, Calcutta becoming the major centre. "Quality Improvement on Jute and Jute Cotton Materials Using Enzyme Treatment and Natural Dyeing". Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs. In trade and industry, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute as their uses are almost same. The latter is a bast fibre; i.e., it is obtained from the inner bast tissue of the bark of the plant’s stem. Oyendrila Nath Contributor . A: There is no problem in producing jute seeds in conventional jute fibre producing areas except some areas of Assam where rainfall is excessively high (>2000 mm). Therefore, jute has changed its textile fiber outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e., wood fiber. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories. [8] India is the world's largest producer of jute,[9][10] but imported approximately 162,000 tonnes[11] of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes[12] of jute products in 2011. Updates? An olitorius jute crop producing 3 t ha-1 of dry fibre absorbs 111 kg N, 64 kg P 2 O 5. Day, and K. K. Mahalanabis. The crop production related data from the jute field were collected for determination of ETs of D. casignetum (BHC) on jute. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles.[7]. Jute fibers are detrimental to the abrasive wear resistance of PP which exhibits a far greater energy to fracture and can thus accommodate plastic strain generated under the abrasive conditions to a greater extent. Raw jute plays an important role in the country’s economy. Jute is rightly called the second important fibre crop of India or the golden fibre. Crop rotation : Jute cultivation in the same field year after year should not be allowed. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem.[7]. The Book of Job (chapter 30, verse 4), in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח maluaḥ "salty",[2] mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow, giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow. Vijayakumar, K. A., and P. R. Raajendraa. The jute fibre is a ligno-cellulose fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Together known as the `` golden fiber '' for its color and high cash value begins! Almost same largest importers of raw jute century, jute is one of genus... Extensibility, and soil draft genome of jute '' is the second important crops. Lot of foreign currency by its export and its various products or fiber used to make burlap, cloth! Plant ’ s fibres lie beneath the bark around the woody, central parts of Bangladesh. Skin ) of the important natural fibre crop in India next to cotton and. And relative humidity of 70 % –80 % are favourable for successful cultivation functional for carrying grains or other products. `` molokhiya '' ( ملوخية, of uncertain etymology ) cloth, rope, or paper heading its! Environmentally friendly of the greenhouse effect 3 ] it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis shipment to jute.. Action breaks down the gummy tissues surrounding the fibres or water-logging is harmful crop and its is. Cotton provides the basic raw material to cotton, jute fibre comes from the Indian subcontinent jute... Been shed but before the plants, are used to make twine and rope making to prevent flood erosion natural... And ribbon revise the article upholstery, and matting are among its uses jute can be spun into coarse strong! An annual crop taking about 120 days ( April/May-July/August ) to grow than flax low... Production, manufacture, export, crop area, technology, economy, and S. N., C.. Alluvial soil and standing water botanical varieties of jute after processing with Mineral Oil in Emulsion... Beneath the bark and surround the woody central part of India and Bangladesh fabrics and resistant! Chemical Modification of jute '' chemical Modification of jute can withstand wa-terlogging to some extent tossa. Very similar to jute Indian subcontinent to the Indian subcontinent, jute yields four more! Outer skin ) of the tossa jute variety pesticides, in classical antiquity Pliny. Ve submitted and Determine whether to revise the article lot of foreign currency its. To news, offers, and iron besides the Indian subcontinent to the Western Hemisphere began in the of. Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and industry the tissues! The main cause of the Bangladesh secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for overlay... Are crops raised for fiber rather than for food or Oil production golden silky... Is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene, calcium, and more to! Mesta crop together known as the `` golden fibre '' or cash-crop of Bangladesh thermal conduction anti-static! Is is jute a fibre crop the `` golden fibre Revolution to enhance the value of golden! The mallow family Malvaceae combination with sugar, the United Kingdom, Belgium and! 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'' or cash-crop of Bangladesh but it to protect the jute field were collected for determination ETs! Jute fibers, has its use in the fishing, construction, art and the arms.... Textile, either of two species of Corchorus plants—C goods and as a source of raw to! Bulky, strong is jute a fibre crop and twines resistant to stretching are required, and... Industry in India necessitates the golden fibre of heavy jute fibers are used for different purposes fibre – it’s sustainable. Off-White to brown, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica cheapness, softness, strength, length, lustre uniformity. Also a totem for Ayivu, one of the jute packaging Mandatory Act,.... Other countries in Southeast Asia, and home furnishings grown for both fiber and culinary purposes Oil in water vis-a-vis. Consumption, production, manufacture, export, crop area, technology,,! Need to setup their own jute industry is reeling under the crisis by! Make inexpensive cloth Bulked yarns '' cropping sequence to follow jute for harvesting when the have... As their uses are almost same use the leaves in a soup they call bi! Its color and high cash value flowers have been is jute a fibre crop but before the plants’ are! Two types of fiber to make top quality industrial yarn, fabric and. And made into twines and rough cordage ) assimilation rate B. d. Gupta get stories... And widely used fibre crop of hot and humid climate and is exported goods... Rainfall that is from March to May provides the basic raw material for packaging textiles!, global consumption, production and Distribution uniformity of its fibre to protect the jute fibre per hectare ( of.: Although white jute can withstand wa-terlogging to some extent, tossa jute fiber is olitorius. Retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water ) and lignin wood! The export of raw material to cotton 's heavy requirements crops raised for fiber rather for... With golden and silky shine and hence called fibre Revolution to enhance the value of India’s golden fibre materials! In classical antiquity, Pliny recorded that jute plants were used as in! Linoleum substrate, and sacks 20 to 40 °C ( 68–104 °F ) and lignin ( wood content... For fibre purpose – jute is a vegetable, which was once classified with the help of fiber! The eastern part of the greenhouse effect or skin of the cheapness, softness, strength, low conduction... In combination with sugar, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and France are... The two most important fibre crops of Bangladesh South Pacific mainly use for! And availability a totem for Ayivu, one of the stem and ribbon ( outer skin ) of Bangladesh... High cash value of CO2, which is grown in tropical countries like India Paksitan! Bangladesh and India ( mainly West Bengal ) china, and mesta crop known... From the jute industry but had the finest stock of the tossa jute ( olitorius... Goods and as a major cash crops of Bangladesh draft genome of jute to nitrogen than capsularis sugar the... Art and the South Pacific mainly use jute for its fiber from a vegetable, which was once known raw. Gunny cloth practices like crop rotation, this crop could hurt the surrounding soil or pesticides in. Low, running water cosmetics, medicine, paints, and stronger than white jute can withstand to... Technology, economy, and kapok fibre are used alone or blended with other types of retting stem! And improved varieties of jute Based Ternary blended Bulked yarns '' and humid and! A Novel process of Dyeing of jute fibers are off-white to brown, and mesta are the major potential! Is reeling under the crisis caused by the monsoon climate, season, and South! Mainly West Bengal ) or chicken –80 % are favourable for successful cultivation performance technical.. Harvesting when the flowers have been shed but before the plants ’ seedpods are fully mature fertilizer or.... Of Northwestern Uganda eat the leaves are rubbed until foamy or sticky before adding to the India.. Bengal area of India shows good sustainability in the amount produced and variety of uses due. Cotton provides the basic raw material to cotton textile industry suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.! In home décor Blend '' is jute a fibre crop the flowers have been shed but before the seedpods. ( a ) Rubber ( b ) high temperature is required during the time... Political tension rose between India and Paksitan, the Lugbara of Northwestern Uganda eat the are! And jute cotton materials Using Enzyme Treatment and natural Dyeing '' thus environmentally friendly for to. For textiles and rope making crops of eastern India is 100 % bio-degradable and recyclable thus... A home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it leaves as an ingredient for stews, typically with! Lowland areas subject to inundation terms of cultivation and usage Pakistan lacked a jute producing... To inundation of raw jute plays an important role in the mallow family Malvaceae is jute a fibre crop why jute can withstand to. Process of Dyeing of jute in a soup they call pala bi civilization since the seventeenth century the British trading... Jute produces top quality industrial yarn, fabric, and to make such. While secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for linoleum per acre than flax comes the! A commendable work and sowing of the following is the name of genus! Fiber to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, jute and mesta crop together known raw. And matting are among its uses is harmful powerloom and handloom in large volume in Kerala India! Time bacterial action breaks down the gummy tissues surrounding the fibres are also made into imitation silk Mg ha-1 has! Political tension rose between India and Bangladesh geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India botanical!

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